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Shrew Talk

"SHREW TALK" - Vol. 1, No. 09 - 19July 1997

SHREW TALK - 19July 1997 - Vol. 1, No. 9
Number of Recipients: >214
Contents of this Issue
o Editorial
o Research
1. Longworth-style traps from Canada
2. Soil ingestion by shrews and contaminated sites
3. More references on soil ingestion and contaminated sites
4. Pitfalls: a humane way to capture shrews?
5. Re: Pitfalls: a humane way to capture shrews?
o Shrew-mateur
1. Venomous shrews for a film
o Shrew Bibliography: New Papers
1. Proceedings of the ISACC's 4th International Meeting
o What's New on the Shrew (ist's) Site?
o Shrew (ist's) Site - Related Inquiries
1. Non-delivery notifications
o Shrew Talk Instructions
Dear Shrew-Fessionals and Shrew-Mateurs,
Many of you might be away, attending the various congresses or, in parts of central Europe, be busy fighting the water masses. The continuous rainfalls make it really uncomfortable for small mammals. Even too much for water shrews, especially during the breeding season. I am wondering if anybody is focusing her / his studies on these floodings.
I was notified that some mails that were sent to the 'Shrew Site' seemingly did not get through. I would be grateful if anybody having trouble sending or receiving shrew-mail would inform me.
Your's shrewly,
Werner Haberl
1) Longworth-style traps from Canada
Date: Wed, 16 Jul 1997 21:50:43 -0700 (PDT)
From: Vanessa Joy Craig <vjcraig@unixg.ubc.ca>
Subject: Re: SHREW TALK: Vol. 1, No. 8 - 8 July 1997
Re. PA Morris' mention of Longworth traps. I agree that Longworth traps are superior to Sherman traps in their design. The separate tunnel and nest box permit the addition of food and cotton without being concerned about jamming the trigger, as with Sherman traps. One addition: Longworth-style traps are also being manufactured in Canada. Because of the exchange rate and long wait often associated with ordering traps from Bolton traps in Britain, we persuaded a local manufacturer to make Longworth-style traps, using the same dimensions etc. Traps can be made of aluminum or steel. The manufacturer's name and address is:
B.N. Bolton Inc., 6235 Jeffers Dr., Vernon, British Columbia Canada V1B 3G4 Phone: (250) 545-9171 Fax: (25) 545-4433 _______________________________________________________________________
2) Soil ingestion by shrews and contaminated sites
Date: Fri, 18 Jul 1997 16:18:36 +0300 (EET DST)
From: Jarmo Saarikko <saarikko@metla.fi>
Subject: Re: (fwd) shrew inquiries on the web: May 1997,
Re: SHREW TALK: Vol. 1, No. 1 - 10 June 1997
Dear Chris,
My suggestion is that shrews do not eat soil per se, but do get soil in their digestive tract while eating earthworms. This applies to larger species and areas where there are earthworms. There are some studies made by Erkki Pankakoski and Ilkka Koivisto in Finland, where they noticed versatile effects on shrews in contaminated vs. non-contaminated soils.
Prof. Hyvarinen is reachable at U. Joensuu <Heikki.Hyvarinen@joensuu.fi> <http://www.joensuu.fi/matemluonto/biologia/Index.htm>
Here are some casual references from the U.Helsinki database at <http://www.helsinki.fi/lumme/lummeen/>.
I'm sorry I don't have Werner's database available to give you more references.
Pankakoski, Erkki & Koivisto, Ilkka & Hyvarinen, Heikki & Terhivuo, Juhani
Shrews as indicators of heavy metal pollution. // Advances in the biology of shrews. - (Carnegie Museum of Natural History special publication; 18)1994.. 137-149
Terhivuo, Juhani & Pankakoski, Erkki & Hyvarinen, Heikki & Koivisto, Ilkka
Pb uptake by ecologically dissimilar earthworm (Lumbricidae) species near a lead smelter in South Finland. // Environmental pollution. - Barking : Elsevier Applied Science ISSN 0269-7491. 85 (1994) s. 87-96
Pankakoski, E. & Koivisto, I. & Hyvarinen, H. & Terhivuo, J. & Tahka, K.M.
Experimental accumulation of lead from soil through earthworms to common shrews. // Chemosphere. - Oxford : Pergamon ISSN 0045-6535. 29 (1994) : 8 s. 1639-1649
Best regards,
Jarmo Saarikko <jarmo.saarikko@iki.fi>
URL: http://www.iki.fi/JSaa/
Finnish Forest Research Institute, METLA Helsinki, Finland
NOTE: Both the names Hyvarinen and Tahka are correctly spelled with 2 dots above the a (an 'umlaut a' on a german keyboard (ä)). - WH
3) More references on soil ingestion and contaminated sites
From: Werner Haberl
Somebody call me?
(>don't have Werner's database available...)
References from 'The Shrew Bibliography':
Andrews, S.M., M.S. Johnson, J.A. Cooke. 1989. Distribution of trace element pollutants in a contaminated grassland ecosystem established on metalliferous fluorspar tailings: 1. Lead. Environmental Pollution 58(1): 73-85.
Brueske, C.C., G.W. Barrett. 1991. Dietary heavy metal uptake by the least shrew, Cryptotis parva. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 47 (6): 845-849.
Chmiel, K.M., R.M. Harrison. 1981. Lead content of small mammals at a roadside site in relation to the pathways of exposure. Sci. Total Environ. 17 (2): 145-154.
Clark, D.R. 1979. Lead Concentrations: Bats VS. Terrestrial Small Mammals Collected Near a Major Highway. Environ. Sci. Technol. 13(3): 338-341.
Cooke, J.A., S.M. Andrews, M.S. Johnson. 1990. Lead, zinc, cadmium and fluoride in small mammals from contaminated grassland established on fluorspar tailings. Water Air and Soil Pollution 51(1-2): 43-54.
Demuth, M., B. Streit. 1987 (1989). Studies on lead accumulations in small mammals (Apodemus sylvaticus, Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus, Sorex araneus) in urban and rural areas. Schaefer, M. (Ed.). Verhandlungen Gesellschaft fuer Oekologie, Band 17; (Proceedings of the Society for Ecology, Vol. 17); 17th Annual Meeting of the Gesellschaft fuer Oekologie (Society for Ecology), Goettingen, Germany, September 27-October 3, 1987. 834p. 611-617.. Gesellschaft fuer Oekologie: Goettingen, Germany.
Getz, L.L., L. Verner, M. Prather. 1977. Lead concentrations in small mammals living near highways. Environmental Pollution (A) 13: 151-157.
Goldsmith, C.D. Jr., P.F. Scanlon. 1977. Lead levels in small mammals and selected invertebrates associated with highways of different traffic densities. Bull. Environ. Contam. Tox. 17: 311-316.
Hegstrom, L.J., S.D. West. 1989. Heavy metal accumulation in small mammals following sewage sludge application to forests. Journal of Environmental Quality 18(3): 345-349.
Johnson, M.S., R.D. Roberts, M. Hutton, M.J. Inskip. 1978. Distribution of lead, zinc and cadmium in small mammals from polluted environments. Oikos 30: 153-159.
Ma, W.-C. 1989. Effect of soil pollution with metallic lead pellets on lead bioaccumulation and organ/body weight alterations in small mammals. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 18(4): 617-622.
Ma, W.-C., W. Denneman, J. Faber. 1991. Hazardous exposure of ground-living small mammals to cadmium and lead in contaminated terrestrial ecosystems. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 20(2): 266-270.
Mueller, K. 1990. The heavy-metal pollution in the Oker Valley (Germany) represented by selected mice-species. Braunschweiger Naturkundliche Schriften 3(3): 629-636.
Quarles, H.D., III, R.B. Hanawalt, W.E. Odum. 1974. Lead in small mammals, plants and soil at varying distances from a highway. J. Applied Ecology 11: 937-949.
Read, H.J., M.H. Martin. 1993. The effect of heavy metals on populations of small mammals from woodlands in Avon (England): With particular emphasis on metal concentrations in Sorex araneus L. and Sorex minutus L. Chemosphere 27(11): 2197-2211.
Roberts, R.D., M.S. Johnson, M. Hutton. 1978. Lead contamination of small mammals from abandoned metalliferous mines. Environmental Pollution 15: 61-69.
Scanlon, P.F. 1979. Lead contamination of mammals and invertebrates near highways with different traffic volumes. Pp. 200-208. In: S.W. Nielsen, L. Migak, d.G. Scarpelli (eds.). Animals as monitors of environmental pollutants. (Symp., Starrs, Comn., USA, 1977). Nat. Acad. Sci., Wash., D.C., 421 pp.
Werner Haberl - shrewbib@sorex.vienna.at
4) Pitfalls: a humane way to capture shrews?
Date: Thu, 17 Jul 1997 14:08:12 -0500
From: Bergeron <renee.bergeron@san.ulaval.ca>
Subject: Traps designed to capture shrews
Dear Ethologist,
I need an expert's opinion on a humane way to capture shrews. I was told by a researcher that a pitfall trap filled with water was the only way to capture these small rodents. However, death by drowning does not strike me as being very humane! We (as members of the Animal Care Committe) are willing to approve the use of a pitfall trap without water. Apparently, the problem with this method is that shrews are susceptible to death by starvation or cannibalism (if more than one shrew falls in the pit). Is this a valid argument? How can we overcome this problem? Can we use a small trap with a gate that closes behind the animal? Can we put food in the trap?
Thanks in advance for your help,
Renée Bergeron
Département des sciences animales Université Laval Ste-Foy,
Quebec, Canada, G1K 7P4
Tel: (418) 656-2131 poste (ext)5950 Fax: (418) 656-3766
E-mail: renee.bergeron@san.ulaval.ca
------------------------------------------ _______________________________________________________________________
5) Re: Pitfalls: a humane way to capture shrews?
From: Werner Haberl
Dear Renee,
I am not *the* expert, but pitfall traps are surely one of the best ways to capture shrews. However, there is no need to fill them with water. Shrews cannot jump as high as rodents (eg mice), so a pitfall about 15-20 cm deep would do the job. You would just have to control your traps every 90 minutes or so to prevent trap mortality. Providing food (I use meal-worms) is essential, but you ought to be aware that also other factors, such as stress or undercooling, cause trap mortalities in shrews. ... Therefore, control your traps frequently, if you want the shrews to stay alive. This would also (hopefully) prevent cannibalism. There also is a possibility to 'unset' pitfalls or to put them into a 'prebaiting' state. The method is simple: I used a stick or a piece of styrofoam, that I positioned in the trap, so that animals could escape during non-capture periods. You would still be able to notice that an animal used the 'trap' from faeces or eaten bait.
This trapping procedure also applies to the use of non-pitfall traps. Besides various 'homemade' traps, traps that are commonly in use include the standard Longworth and Sherman traps. The use of these traps for catching shrews has been a topic in recent issues of the newsletter 'Shrew Talk'.
Another thing: ...shrews are not rodents...
Best wishes,
Werner Haberl - shrewbib@sorex.vienna.at
1) Venomous shrews for a film
Date: Wed, 16 Jul 1997 12:23:24 +1000
From: Tina Dalton <bettinad@OZEMAIL.COM.AU>
Subject: Venomous Shrew
I am wondering if anyone can help me. I am an Australian filmmaker interested in filming an American venomous shrew using its venom to subdue its prey. Can anyone tell me if all shrews in the genus Blarina are venomous? Are there any other venomous American shrews? I will be in Arizona filming during this month. Is there anyone working with venomous shrews in Arizona or has some in captivity?
Any further contacts would be much appreciated.
Best wishes,
Tina Dalton
ÒThe Shrew BibliographyÓ is a collection of more than 6000 references to research on the biology of the Soricidae (Insectivora, Mammalia) and small mammal ecology. More info: http://members.vienna.at/shrew/shrewbib.html
To announce your new research papers/books, please follow the instructions (separate fields with the character "#"): Author(s)#Year#Title#Journal&Page No.#Abstract#Keywords#Address *I* would appreciate receiving a reprint of your paper and/or a list of your publications to add to the bibliography.
1) Proceedings of the ISACC's 4th International Meeting
Date: Wed, 16 Jul 1997 13:34:05 BST
From: "Jeremy B. Searle" <jbs3@york.ac.uk>
Evolution in the Sorex araneus group: Cytogenetic and molecular aspects
Proceedings of the International Sorex araneus Cytogenetics Committee Fourth International Meeting (Norr Malma and Uppsala, Sweden; 22-27 August 1996)
ed. Karl Fredga and Jeremy B. Searle
These proceedings have now been published in the journal 'Hereditas' (1996; volume 125, pp 97-248). They include 19 papers covering a wide range of topics: the definitive list of chromosome races of Sorex araneus; descriptions of chromosome races of Sorex araneus from the Former Soviet Union and Scandinavia; cytogenetic, morphometric and molecular studies of chromosomal hybrid zones in Sorex araneus; discussions of origin and maintenance of chromosomal variation in Sorex araneus; gene mapping, microsatellite and meiotic studies on Sorex araneus; cytogenetic, allozyme and molecular studies on species related to Sorex araneus.
Please contact Jeremy Searle (jbs3@york.ac.uk) if you have any comments or queries about these proceedings.
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o SHREW (ist's) SITE - Related Info & Inquiries
1) Non-delivery notifications
I frequently have trouble sending out mail to the following persons. I would be thankful, if anybody could provide the correct e-mail addresses.
----- The following addresses have delivery notifications -----
Julio Cesar Voltolino <jcvoltol@usp.br> (unrecoverable error)
Margarita Rogatcheva: <rita@riem.nagoya-u.ac.jp> (unrecoverable error)
Gordon Kirkland: <glkirk@ark.ship.edu>
A. Legakis: <alegakis@atlas.uoa.gr>
Nikola Tvrtkovic: <Nikola.Tvrtkovic@hpm.hr>
Alvaro Carrasquel: <aviloria@europa.ica.luz.ve>
Stasa Tome: <stasa@zrc-sazu.sl>
Darko Kovacic: <dkovacic@jagor.srce.hr>
Graham John Pierce: <g.jpierce@aberdeen.ac.uk>
William L. Gannon. <wgannon@unmb>
Thank you for your help, WH
All replies to the Shrew Talk inquiries should be posted to the group. However, if you prefer to reply to someone personally, *I* would appreciate receiving a copy of the mail (Cc or Bcc) and/or a summary of the "outcome".
Reply to shrewbib@sorex.vienna.at - include the words "Shrew Talk" in the subject line.
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Dr. Werner Haberl Editor, SHREW TALK (http://members.vienna.at/shrew/shrewtalk.html) Hamburgerstr. 11, A-1050 Vienna, Austria
Email: shrewbib@sorex.vienna.at URL: http://members.vienna.at/shrew (The Shrew (ist's) Site)
The Shrew Bibliography (> 6000 references) (available on CD ROM) ==================================================================

This web site was created by
Dr. Werner Haberl. Address: Hamburgerstrasse 11, A-1050 Vienna, Austria.
E-mail: shrewbib@sorex.vienna.at
URL: http://members.vienna.at/shrew