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"SHREW TALK" - Vol. 1, No. 28 - 18 December 1997

SHREW TALK - 18 December 1997 - Vol. 1, No. 28
Number of Recipients: >288
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Contents of this Issue
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o Research
1. Sexing shrews
2. Shrew ultrasonic sounds
3. Re: Shrew ultrasonic sounds & references
4. Subnivean environment & King Solomon's Ring
5. Re: Subnivean environment & King Solomon's Ring
6. Fish as predators on shrews: correction
o Miscellaneous
1. Re: Educational films: 'The Incredible Shrew'
2. Euro-American Mammal Congress
3. Shrew caravans to be filmed for National Geographic
3a) Re: Shrew caravans for NG & references
3b) Offer #1: Shrew caravans: E. Rissman
3c) Offer #2: Shrew caravans: P. Vogel
3d) Offer #3: Shrew caravans: R. Baxter
4. A new rodent (& small mamma) web-site
o Shrew Bibliography: New Papers / Books
o What's New on the Shrew (ist's) Site o Shrew Talk Instructions
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o RESEARCH
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1) Sexing shrews A reply to S. Petersen ( ST 1/27)
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Date: Mon, 15 Dec 1997 10:06:45 -0800
From: Leslie Carraway <carver@proaxis.com>
Subject: sexing of young shrews
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Stephen:
Sexing of young shrews really is not as difficult as you think. You just have to remember that anatomically, shrew reproductive organs are not located in quite the arrangementment of a rodent. This expectation is what gets most people in trouble. In prepuberal shrews the penis is filamentous, so, most people think that when they find a long (>1 inch) anatomical part in the lower abdominal cavity that they have one horn of a females uterus. Just remember, if you find one long filamentous organ, that there must be two of them for it to be a female. The testes (ca. 0.5 to 1 mm in diameter) of the male will look like very tiny stark white nodules surrounded with a several times larger amount of fat -- they will be located almost against the tail vertebrae, outside the abdominal cavity. They can be seen only with the aid of a hand lens or preferably a disecting microscope. You can most easily find the yound females uterus by pulling down (toward the tail) the bladder -- you should then be able to see two long (ca. 1 inch long) filamentous bodies attached at their base located against the spine.
Leslie Carraway Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Nash 104 Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331
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Note from W.H.: Possibilities to sex live shrews were discussed in ST 1/2, 12 June, 1997.
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2) Shrew ultrasonic sounds
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Date: Thu, 18 Dec 1997 00:49:53 -0500
From: fdirrigl@m5.sprynet.com
Subject: Shrew ultrasonic sounds
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Dear Werner,
Do you know of any references or individuals reporting that they have surveyed for shrews using ultrasonic detectors? I am exploring this survey method for application with assessing presence of Cryptotis parva, which is considered an endangered species in Connecticut. Thanks for your assistance. Your web page is great.
I have a reference to add:
Dirrigl Jr, Frank J. 1994 Cryptotis parva (Say, 1823) (Mammalia: Insectivora) in Connecticut. Connecticut Journal of Science Education 32(1):10-13. This report confirms the continued existence of C. parva in Connecticut at its northeasternmost range limit and represents the only known extant population in the state. Specific habitat information is reported.
Best regards,
Frank J. Dirrigl Jr. Department of Anthropology U-158 University of Connecticut Storrs, CT 06269-2158 fdirrigl@sprynet.com http://home.sprynet.com/sprynet/fdirrigl
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3) Re: Shrew ultrasonic sounds & references
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From: Werner Haberl - shrewbib@sorex.vienna.at
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As to my knowledge nobody has ever surveyed shrews with ultrasonic detectors (I suppose you mean to track them in the field?). I am not sure whether this is possible or as effective as in bat studies. But if somebody is aware of such an attempt, I would like to hear about it.
Dr. R. Hutterer has closely studied shrew vocalisations for his thesis (Hutterer, 1976). Using an ultrasonic receiver he could registrate ultrasonic sounds Sorex minutus and S. araneus emitted during exploration (20-64 kHz). However, the microphone was held very close to the shrews.
Best wishes & I hope to have been of some help, Werner
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Related references (taken from The Shrew Bibliography):
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  • * Buchler, E.R. 1973. The use of echolocation by the wandering shrew, Sorex vagrans Baird. Diss. Abstr. Int. B. Sci. Eng. 33(7): 3380-3381.
  • * Buchler, E.R. 1976. Experimental demonstration of echolocation by the wandering shrew (Sorex vagrans). Anim. Behav. 24(4): 858-873.
  • * Busnel, R.-G. (Ed.). 1963. Acoustic Behaviour of Animals. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company.
  • * Forsman, K.A., M.G. Malmquist. 1988. Evidence for echolocation in the common shrew, Sorex araneus. J. Zool., Lond. 216 (4): 655-663. In this laboratory experiment it is shown that, like four North American soricid shrew species, the European common shrew Sorex araneus L. is able to use echolocation to identify open and closed tubes at a distance fo 200 mm. Echolocation calls consisted of broadband ultrasonic clicks at low sound pressure. These were recorded using an ultrasound detector. The ecological significant of echolocation in shrews is discussed. It is proposed that common shrews use echolocation to locate protective cover, thus minimizing the risk to be taken by, e.g. owls. Echolocation may also be used for detecting obstacles in subterranean tunnels.
  • * Gould, E. 1962. Evidence for echolocation in shrews.Ph.D. Thesis, Tulane University.
  • * Gould, E., N. Negus, A. Novick. 1964. Evidence for echolocation in shrews. J. Exp. Zool. 156: 19-38.
  • * Hutterer, R. 1976. Deskriptive und vergleichende Verhaltensstudien an der Zwergspitzmaus, Sorex minutus L., und der Waldspitzmaus, Sorex araneus L. (Soricidae - Insectivora - Mammalia). Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Wien.
  • * Hutterer, R., P. Vogel. 1977. Abwehrlaute afrikanischer Spitzmäuse der Gattung Crocidura Wagler, 1832 und ihre systematische Bedeutung. Bonn. Zool. Beitr. 28(3/4): 218-227.
  • * Hutterer, R., P. Vogel, H. Frey, M. Genoud. 1979. Vocalization of the shrews Suncus etruscus and Crocidura russula during normothermia and torpor. Acta Theriol. 24(21): 267-271.
  • * Irwin, D.V., R.M. Baxter. 1980. Evidence against the use of echolocation by Crocidura f. flavescens (Soricidae). Säugetierk. Mitt. 28(4): 323.
  • * Kahmann, H., K. Ostermann. 1951. Wahrnehmen und Hervorbringen hoher Töne bei kleinen Säugetieren. Experientia 7(7): 268-269.
  • * Köhler, D., D. Wallschläger. 1987. Über die Lautäußerungen der Wasserspitzmaus, Neomys fodiens (Insectivora: Soricidae). Zool. Jb. Physiol. 91: 89-99. * Sales, G., D. Pye. 1974. Ultrasonic communication by animals. London.
  • * Tomasi, T.E. 1979. Echolocation by the short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda. J. Mammalogy 60(4): 751-759.
  • (WH) _______________________________________________________________________
    4) Arctic shrews & King Solomon's Ring
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    Date: Tue, 09 Dec 1997 09:31:40 +0000
    From: Mike Appleby <mappleby@srv0.bio.ed.ac.uk>
    Subject: (Fwd) Shrew Folklore, Lore, Superstition & Stories
    To: applied-ethology@sask.usask.ca
    .
    First, that I'm surprised shrews live that far north. They are notoriously susceptible to cold, or at least they need a huge supply of food to cope with the cold. Many years ago I did some small mammal live-trapping - at least, they were supposed to be live, but a couple of times I found a dead shrew in the traps. If you're live-trapping and there are many shrews around you should really check the traps every couple of hours or make sure there's plenty of shrew-type insect-based food inside. Anyway, do they hibernate? Or is the very existence of shrews in Inuit stories difficult to account for?
    Second, just to check: do you know the wonderful accounts of shrews by Konrad Lorenz? He has a chapter called The Taming of the Shrew, in King Solomon's Ring. I particularly remember his story of shrews who had to jump over a stone on a regular route. He removed the stone, but they apparently worked by memory rather than sight, because they continued to jump over the non-existent stone at the appropriate place.
    Mike _______________________________________________________________________
    5) Re: Arctic shrews & King Solomon's Ring
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    Date: Fri, 12 Dec 1997 15:27:34 -0800
    From: chris gotman <chris.gotman@sympatico.ca>
    Subject: Soricidae To: applied-ethology@sask.usask.ca
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    Dear Mike Appleby,
    Shrews whose distribution includes the arctic in North America: Sorex cinereus, Sorex arcticus, Sorex palustris, Microsorex hoyi.
    The subnivian environment (the gap that forms between the snow and the ground) is relatively warm and hospitable. Makes life easy for rodent and insectivore alike.
    Live trapping: shrews are so high strung, just the snapping shut of the trap can cause them to die from shock. My mammology prof. regalled us with anectdotes of dead shrews found within a few feet of closed Shermann Live Traps. Maybe he was pulling our legs. We always included a wad of cotton and a lump of peanut butter when live trapping jumping mice. And checked the traps often.
    Obstacle avoidance: Shrews, like bats, echo-locate. My work duties include feeding and cleaning up after a large number of bats. While I'm in their exhibit, they frequently bump into me. I surmise they aren't wasting their breath echo-locating while navigating a path they know by heart. Just like Lorenz's shrew.
    sincerely, Chris Gotman Granby zoo Canada
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    6) Fish as predators on shrews: correction
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    From: Werner Haberl - shrewbib@sorex.vienna.at
    .
    Regarding my latest query on accounts of fish predating on shrews, I must correct the cited observation: The ingested mammal turned out to be not a shrew (as J. Ford wrote initially), but a vole. Nonetheless, this is most interesting and I received a couple of replies from the 'fish-people', actually having found shrews in the stomachs of fish, mostly trout. I also received a photo of a trout 'choked' on a shrew by J. C. Wolf. The involved shrew species are not limited to water shrews, which seems to rise another discussion of how or why 'terrestrial' shrews enter the water and put the (quite old) literature on semi-aquatic habits of shrews to be regarded from a different point of view, i.e. an interdisciplinary ecological approach.
    I will summarize the observations on the web-site soon. Any additional accounts or thoughts on this topic are welcome.
    W.H.
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    o MISCELLANEOUS
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    1) Re: Educational films: 'The Incredible Shrew'
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    Date: Tue, 16 Dec 97 17:13:43 CST
    From: Tom Tomasi <TET962F@vma.smsu.edu>
    Subject: Re: SHREW TALK: Vol. 1, No. 27 - 14 December 1997
    .
    Many years ago (~20), the film entitled THE INCREDIBLE SHREW was available from:
    Stouffer Enterprises, Inc PO Box 4740 Aspen Colorado 81611 USA
    phone: (303)925-9227
    Perhaps they still distribute it or know who does. Of course back then, it was available on 16mm film only.
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    2) Euro-American Mammal Congress
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    From: Werner Haberl - shrewbib@sorex.vienna.at
    .
    From the second e-mail circular (Santiago Reig) describing the
    EURO-AMERICAN MAMMAL CONGRESS: Challenges in Holarctic Mammalogy Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Spain July 20-24, 1998
    I excerpted the following shrew-related symposia that will be held:
    .
    * CHROMOSOMES IN SYSTEMATIC AND PHYLOGENETIC RESEARCH Conveners: Vitaly Volobouev, Laboratoire de Zoologie, Mammiferes et Oiseaux, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 55, rue Buffon F-75005 Paris, France. Phone: (33) 1 40793065. Fax: (33) 1 40793063. vitaly@mnhn.fr William S. Modi, Intramural Research Support Program, SAIC Frederick, National Cancer Institute, Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, Frederick, MD 21702-1201 U.S.A. Fax: (1) 301 8461909. modi@ncifcrf.gov Jan Zima, Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics As Cr, Veveri 97, Brno CZ-60200, Czech Republic. Phone: (420) 412 12292+K1. Fax: (420) 412 12988. gemobrno@ipm.cz
    .
    * SHREW COMMUNITIES: EAST, WEST, NORTH, AND SOUTH Conveners: Gordon L. Kirkland, Jr., Vertebrate Museum, Shippensburg University, Shippensburg, PA 17257, USA. Phone: (1) 717 5321407. Fax: (1) 717 5304048. glkirk@ark.ship.edu Sara Churchfield, Biosphere Sciences Division, King's College Campden Hill Road, London W8 7AH UK. Phone: (441) 71 3334463. Fax: (441) 71 3334500.
    .
    * BIOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF SEMI-AQUATIC INSECTIVORES Conveners: Ana Isabel Queiroz, Instituto da Conservacao da Naturaleza, Rua Filipe Folque, n 46 - 11050 Lisboa, Portugal. Phone: (351) 1 3523018. Fax: (351) 1 3574771. carlos.romao@mail.telepac.pt Howard P. Whidden, Biology Department, Central College, 812 University Avenue, Pella, IA 50219, USA. Phone: (1) 515 6285147. whiddenh@central.edu
    .
    * SEARCHING FOR THE GRAIL: A SAMPLING METHOD THAT ACCURATELY PORTRAYS SMALL MAMMAL COMMUNITIES Conveners: Gordon L. Kirkland, Jr., Vertebrate Museum, Shippensburg University, Shippensburg, PA 17257, USA. Phone: (1) 717 5321407. Fax: (1) 717 5304048. glkirk@ark.ship.edu Jiri Gaisler, Department of Zoology and Ecology, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic. Phone: (420) 5 41129522. Fax: (420) 5 412 112 14. gaisler@sci.muni.cz
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    Postal address for correspondence is:
    Euro-American Mammal Congress Laboratorio de Parasitologia Facultad de Farmacia Universidad de Santiago de Compostela 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
    Fax (34) 81 593316
    We call on all potential participants to, whenever feasible, use electronic mail. The electronic mail address to be used for all queries and requests is: galemys@pinar1.csic.es
    _______________________________________________________________________
    3) Shrew caravans to be filmed for National Geographic
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    Date: Sun, 7 Dec 1997 11:45:29 -0500
    From: John Rubin <JohnRubin@compuserve.com>
    Subject: shrew query for tv documentary
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    Dear Dr. Haberl,
    I'm a documentary filmmaker who's been enjoying your shrew website. I hope you don't mind a quick query. I'm trying to gather information on caravanning behavior, which I'd like to film for a documentary I'm developing at the request of National Geographic Television. A citation for a review article might be all I need. What I'm trying to understand is: * What circumstances provoke the behavior, how is it organized, and how does the behavior benefit shrews? * What's the best species in which to film this behavior? * Is there a carvanning species in the UK?
    Thanks for your consideration.
    Dr. John Rubin Lost Coast Films, Inc. 21 Flagg St. Cambridge, MA 02138 USA tel: 617.661.7669 fax: 617.661.7686
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    3a) Re: Shrew caravans for NG
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    From: Werner Haberl - shrewbib@sorex.vienna.at
    .
    John, I forwarded your query to a few laboratories, that I thought could be of help... (see replies to me below)...
    As in all white-toothed shrews (Subfamily Crocidurinae), mothers caravan with their young outside the nest. This is where pups follow their mother, linked by holding the proceeding pups tail or rump in their mouth. This behavior may be the result of nest disturbance or a way of experiencing offspring to the outside world without losing them. I think that the idea is widely accepted that caravanning is related to the fact that Crocidurinae have an extended gestation period (compared to red-toothed shrews, subfamily Soricinae) resulting in a shorter weaning period. Since shrews are receptive shortly after parturition ('Post-partum oestrus'), and since gestation time approximately equals weaning time, any method to get the young 'out of the house' would be of advantage, making way for a possible next litter.
    For more detailed info on caravanning behaviour, please refer to the literature cited below.
    Best wishes,
    Werner
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    References on Caravanning behaviour, taken from 'The Shrew Bibliography'
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  • * De, R.N. 1947. Procession of musk shrews. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 47: 373.
  • * Goodwin, M.K. 1979. Notes on caravan and play behavior in young captive Sorex cinereus. J. Mammalogy 60: 411-413.
  • * Grünwald, A., F.P. Möhres. 1974. Beobachtungen zur Jugendentwicklung und Karawanenbildung bei Weisszahnspitzmäusen (Soricidae-Crocidurinae).Z. Säugetierk. 39: 321-337.
  • * Harper, R.J. 1977. Caravanning in Sorex species. J. Zool., Lond. 183: 541.
  • * Hellwing, S. 1973. The postnatal development of the white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula monacha in captivity. Z. Säugetierk. 38: 257-270.
  • * Meester, J.A.J. 1969. Shrew caravans. Afr. Wild Life 13: 253-254.
  • * Naruse, I., S.-I. Oda, Y. Kameyama. 1978. Postnatal behavior and development in the musk shrew (Suncus murinus). Res. Inst. Environ. Med., Nagoya Univ. Ann. Report, Japan 29: 200-202. Japanese
  • * Niethammer, G. 1950. Zur Jungenpflege und Orientierung der Hausspitzmaus (Crocidura russula Herm.). Bonn. Zool. Beitr. 1(2-4): 117-125.
  • * Tsuji, K., T. Ishikawa. 1982. Life mode and behaviour of the Ryukyu musk shrew (Suncus murinus var. riukiuanus). J. Mamm. Soc. Jpn. 9 (2): 96-103.
  • * Tsuji, K., T. Ishikawa. 1984. Some observations of the caravaning behavior in the musk shrew (Suncus murinus). Behaviour 90(1/3): 167-183.
  • * Tsuji, K., T. Matsuo, T. Ishikawa. 1986. Developmental changes in the caravaning behaviour of the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus). Behaviour 99(1/2): 117-138.
  • * Zippelius, H.-M. 1957. Zur Karawanenbildung bei der Feldspitzmaus (Crocidura leucodon). Bonn. Zool. Beitr. 8 (2): 81-85.
  • * Zippelius, H.-M. 1972. Die Karawanenbildung bei Feld- und Hausspitzmaus. Z. Tierpsychol. 30: 305-320.
  • * Zippelius, H.M. 1981. Crocidura leucodon (Soricidae) - Jungentransport (Karawanenbildung). Film E 1904 des IWF, Göttingen 1981. Publikation von W. Moeller, Publ. Wiss. Film, Sekt. Biol. (14), Nr. 15/E 1904.
  • ----------------------------------------------------------------------
    3b) Offer #1: Shrew caravans for NG
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    Date: Sun, 14 Dec 1997 15:19:29 -0500
    From: Emilie Rissman <efr2f@virginia.edu>
    Subject: Re: shrew caravans for National Geographic
    .
    I would be very excited to have the National Geographic group film here. I have a large (125 breeding females) S. murinus colony. We always have pups of various ages. If we have warning we can make sure that we have animals of the best age for caravanning (for musk shrew that is about 13 days of age). Also we can create some extra-large litters for the photo session. Typically the litters are 2-3, but we can foster pups and get up to 5 per mom. Finally, I don't know where the film crew is located but we are only 2 hours drive from Washington DC. Regards, Emilie
    Emilie Rissman Associate Professor Biology Department University of Virginia Charlottesville VA 22903 email: efr2f@virginia.edu phone: (804) 982-5611 FAX: (804) 243-8433 or 982-5626
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    3c) Offer #2: Shrew caravans for NG
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    From: peter.vogel@izea.unil.ch (Peter Vogel)
    Subject: Re: shrew caravans for National Geographic
    Date: Tue, 16 Dec 1997 06:56:13 +0000
    .
    Perhaps our institute can offer some help in filming shrews.
    Some years ago (1989 or 1990), a group from BBC Bristol (BBC Natural History Unit, Broadcasting House) filmed some sequences of caravanning shrews at our institute. The sequences were used in a film of D. Attenborough ("The Trials of Life"). It was done in August, took 3 days (and we finished with an excursion to see Ibex in the Alps). The best species was Crocidura viaria, an African desert shrew. As important preliminary work we had to keep virgin shrews, to copulate them sequencially one month before the planned data (gestation 30 days) in order to get litters of different age stages at the arrival of the filmers.
    At this moment, we have a breeding colony of about 100 shrews. It would therefore be possible to do it again next summer. Shrews can be bred in winter, but it is better to make a break.
    The easiest species is Crocidura russula (Greater white toothed shrew, 12 g), frequent on the campus of our university. Its colour is grey. Moreover we have a big colony of Crocidura poensis from the rain forest of Ivory Coast. They have rather small litters (2-3 young), are about 19 g and of very dark brown. A smaller colony of Crocidura olivieri (African giant shrew, 30 g) is also here, but this species does not breed so easily. The former big colony of C. viaria is declining and cannot be saved without new individuals from nature.
    We keep occasionally also Sorex araneus and Sorex araneus and Neomys fodiens which are not showing caravanning behaviour.
    Our shrews are all kept in seminatural conditions, on natural soil, not on sawdust. They have rather large cages, e.g. Sorex are kept in cages of one square meter.
    Crocidura russula is a monogamous species (Cantoni D. & Vogel P. 1989: Social organisation and mating system of free ranging greater white-toothed shrews, Crocidura russula. Anim. Behav. 38: 203-214). Some investigations were done on the contribution of the male in reproduction (Male Care Hypothesis) and video recordings were done on the male's behaviour in the nest. The results are not yet published.
    With best wishes,
    Peter Vogel
    Prof. Dr. Peter VOGEL Institut de Zoologie et d'Ecologie animale Univ. de Lausanne CH 1015 Lausanne Switzerland
    Tel: (021) 692 41 61 Fax: (021) 692 41 05 E-Mail: PETER.VOGEL@izea.unil.ch
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    3d) Offer #3: Shrew caravans for NG
    .
    From: "Rod Baxter" <baxter@ufhcc.ufh.ac.za>
    Organization: University of Fort Hare
    Date: Wed, 17 Dec 1997 14:04:04 GMT+120
    Subject: Re: shrew caravans for National Geographic
    .
    Hi Werner, The idea of National Geographic filming shrews is great. I will happily participate. But I must mention that at present I do not have a breeding colony of shrews. If they are keen to film Crocidura flavescens (approx 35g) I am confident that I can get them breeding. Myosorex varius is very different, I could capture pregnant females and they should be able to to get shots of nipple-clinging and if the female raises the litter, also caravanning. The only suitable time for filming would be the southern hemisphere summer, preferably November/December to Feb/March. When one needs things to happen, often things go wrong. Filming could take a week, but could also take a month. (I have some experience of this when BBC filmed some Water Mongoose that I had raised in captivity - sometimes the animals co-operated and sometimes they did not. Obviuosly, if i know when they would come to film, I would do my utmost to ensure that they could start filming immediately.
    I hope this is of some use, Werner. I would like to wish you all the best for the festive season and I hope that your 1998 will be prosperous and happy.
    I'll be away from my e-mail until January.
    Best wishes Rod
    Rod Baxter e-mail: baxter@ufhcc.ufh.ac.za Dept of Zoology fax: 27 [0]40-6022168 University of Fort Hare tel: 27 [0]40-6022164 P/Bag X1314 5700 Alice SOUTH AFRICA
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    4. A new rodent (& small mamma) web-site
    .
    Date: Thu, 18 Dec 1997 16:56:26 +0100
    From: Sebastian Beneke <beneke.f@metronet.de>
    .
    Rodentmania, the new web-site about different rodent species: reports, statistics, other small mammals, links to many topics, zoology resources, dictionary and much more:
    Rodentmania at http://rodentmania.mypage.org
    Rodent Reports: - The harvest mouse (M. minutus) - Dormice (Glis, Eliomys etc.)
    Squirrels: Differences in the subspecies of C. prevosti
    Link-Page: Gerbils, mice, wildlife, small mammels etc.
    Last update 12-11-1997
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    o SHREW BIBLIOGRAPHY: New Papers
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    “The Shrew Bibliography” is a collection of more than 6000 references to research on the biology of the Soricidae (Insectivora, Mammalia) and small mammal ecology. More info: http://members.vienna.at/shrew/shrewbib.html
    To announce your new research papers/books, please follow the instructions (separate fields with the character "#"): Author(s)#Year#Title#Journal&Page No.#Abstract#Keywords#Address *I* would appreciate receiving a reprint of your paper and/or a list of your publications to add to the bibliography.
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    o WHAT'S NEW ON THE SHREW (ist's) SITE?
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    http://members.vienna.at/shrew
    o Last Update: October 1997
    o Number of Visitors (Date: 18 December 1997): >5537
    o Number of "Shrewists on E-mail": >170 (registered on the website)
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    o SHREW TALK INSTRUCTIONS
    ***********************************************************************
    TO POST TO THE GROUP
    All replies to the Shrew Talk inquiries should be posted to the group. However, if you prefer to reply to someone personally, *I* would appreciate receiving a copy of the mail (Cc or Bcc) and/or a summary of the "outcome".
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    To be removed from the list, write to the same address and ask to be removed. ***********************************************************************
    ==================================================================
    Dr. Werner Haberl Editor, SHREW TALK (http://members.vienna.at/shrew/shrewtalk.html) Hamburgerstr. 11, A-1050 Vienna, Austria
    Email: shrewbib@sorex.vienna.at URL: http://members.vienna.at/shrew (The Shrew (ist's) Site)
    The Shrew Bibliography (> 6000 references) (available on CD ROM) ==================================================================


    This web site was created by
    Dr. Werner Haberl. Address: Hamburgerstrasse 11, A-1050 Vienna, Austria.
    E-mail: shrewbib@sorex.vienna.at
    URL: http://members.vienna.at/shrew